Kingdom Poll Supplement

The Kingdom Poll is an important issue; that might just be the one thing everyone agrees on. Their Highnesses and Their Majesties would like all members to examine the issues and cast an informed vote. To help you, the Returning Officer published a supplement in the January 2000 issue of Pegasus, the Lochac SCA monthly newsletter. This supplement had an explanation of the polling process and four articles on the subject of Lochac's potential advancement to Kingdom status. Two of these articles were for advancement, and two were against. The Returning Officer, the previous and current Prince and Princess and the four authors have all granted permission for this supplement to be reproduced here. We urge you to familiarise yourself with these arguments and get involved in the debate. It's only by learning and communicating that we will make sure we reach the best decision.

Eric T F Bat


Conduct of the Poll
After a Kingdom Poll
Introduction to the Yes and No Cases
Lochac Kingdom, A Yes Case by Rowan Perigrynne
Lochac Kingdom, A No Case by Hrölf Herjölfssen
Lochac Kingdom, A Yes Case by Yolande Kesteven
Lochac Kingdom, A No Case by Morwynna Branwynt
Draft Lochac Kingdom Laws and Awards (link to
Formal Requirements

Calendar A.S. XXXIV


January 15-16 Stormhold Twelfth Night Investiture
  January 15 Kingdom Poll Opens
April 21-28 Rowany Festival
  27 April Kingdom Poll closes
  28 April Kingdom Poll Result announced



This is the Lochac Kingdom Poll Pegasus Supplement. The purpose of this supplement is to inform you, the populace about the Lochac Kingdom Poll, its conduct and why you should participate. This poll will take a lot of people large amounts of time and energy to run and the end result will be a demonstration of the will of Lochac's populace.

When the poll is finalised the immediate future of Lochac will have been decided. Whether the decision is to advance to Kingdom, or remain a Kingdom there will be people who disagree with the result, but in time they will accept the result. I urge you to read the reasons for and against advancement and make your mind up in your own time, once cast your vote cannot be withdrawn or changed.

There will be people on both sides of the argument who will attempt to sway you with emotive, or even nonsensical reasons. Some people will attempt to persuade you with sheer volume by repetition of their arguments. Take the time and consider the arguments for and against advancement, vote when you are ready, not before.

For the record I am in favour of advancement. I will try not to become involved in the public debate, but will happily discuss my views with people, both in private and small group discussion.

I would like to thank those people who have taken the time to write the for and against cases printed in this Pegasus supplement - Yolande Kestevan, Morwynna Branwynt, Hrölf Herjölfssen and Rowan Peregrinne.

This document contains information about:

The draft laws included here are the result of the Kingdom Laws committee and the Kingdom Awards committee. I have incorporated a draft Awards structure into the Kingdom Laws and hope that my translation of their work has met the intentions of Valerian and the Awards committee.

Yours in Service

Stephen Aldred
Kingdom Poll Coordinator

Conduct of the Poll

Am I eligible to vote? If you are a sustaining or contributing member of the SCA then you are entitled to vote in the Kingdom poll. Votes will also be collected from Family and Associate members and non members and will be recorded as an indication of the will of the populace of Lochac. Family members of at least 14 years of age will be entitled to cast a vote in their own right. (14 was selected as it is the minimum age at which anyone can take the field)

The Lochac Kingdom Poll will take the form of a ballot, requiring a favourable response from the majority of the populace with a majority of groups in favour.

This means that if over half the membership vote in favour of the poll it will be carried, provided the votes within the majority of groups votes are in favour and there is not significant opposition to advancement. This means that whether you favour the Kingdom of Lochac or are in favour of the status quo it is in your best interests to vote in the Lochac Kingdom Poll.

Each Barony, Shire, College and Canton will have a poll coordinator appointed to conduct the poll in their group. The poll coordinators will encourage people to vote, have copies of reasons for and against and collect completed votes from their group. They will hold the ballot box for their group and record names and membership numbers as votes are cast.

For the purposes of counting groups Cantons and Colleges will be included in their parent groups.


Agaricus St Malachy
Dismal Fogs  
Innilgard Blessed Herman the Cripple
Politarchopolis St Aldhelm
Riverhaven Bacchus Wood, Castellum Montanum, Parvus Portus
Rowany St Augustine, St Ursula
Saint Forians-de-la-Riviere  
Stormhold Bryn-a-Mor, Krae Clas, St Bartholomew, All Saints, Arrow's Reach
Ynys Fawr Hunters Isle, Schoental, St Gildas the Wise
Lochac (Incipient Shires) Borders Crossing, Forrests Reach, Vindr Haldr etc


After a Kingdom Poll

Running a successful Kingdom poll signifies our intention to become a kingdom. it does not mean that we will be able to do so within a short time frame. our best estimates are that the process will take up to two years after completion of the poll. The poll is merely one step in a process that may eventually lead to the creation of a new Kingdom. Of course if it is the will of the populace that Lochac become a Kingdom then it is likely that it will happen.

On success of a Kingdom poll, Lochac would need to submit a written application for a change in branch status, to gain approval from the West Kingdom (Royalty and Officers) and the BoD. In order for these people to approve our change in status they must be satisfied that we are indeed operating as a Kingdom and are ready to make the step. These people will look at:

In addition to that list we will also need an acceptable set of Kingdom laws and a suitable awards structure. Thanks to the work that Aylwin Graymane commissioned, as Lochac Seneschal, we already have a draft set of Kingdom Laws, which includes an Awards structure. If the poll is successful then the Laws and Awards of the Kingdom of Lochac would be re opened for final public comment and amendment.

The package applying for advancement would need to be submitted within twelve months of completion of the poll process. Aside from detailing our "history" as a group we would also need to outline a timetable for advancement. This timetable would need to name proposed first Crown Tournament and Investiture events. To allow time for preparation of the papers and passage through Kingdom and BoD consideration our Investiture as a Kingdom would most likely take around 2 years from completion of the Kingdom Poll. This time would be broken up as follows:

In the meantime Kingdom regalia would need to be made, ceremonies written for Crown Investiture and the new orders&..... Much of the groundwork has been completed, but there remains much to be done, becoming a Kingdom is not an overnight process.

Introduction to the Yes and No Cases

On the following pages are a series of articles written in favour of advancement and against advancement. These cases are the individual opinions of the people who wrote them and serve as indicators to the reasons why Lochac should or shouldn't become a Kingdom.

Four people were approached to write these submissions, two for and two against. All of these people have wide ranging experience of the SCA.

Lochac Kingdom, A Yes case

by Rowan Perigrynne

I've been asked to write a summary of why I think Lochac should become a Kingdom.

First some background. As many of you will know, I've been part of the SCA in Lochac since before it started - as many people have told me, "it's all my fault". In 1989 I heard about the SCA in the US and wanted to join. Since it did not exist here, I started the SCMA with the help of several friends, including Madelaine de Bourgogne, Hrölf Herjölfssen, Robert of Starmount and many others who are no longer playing.

I was very keen to join the SCA and take advantage of their experience, their culture and their traditions rather than having to create everything from scratch, but it took us some time to reach them. When we finally made contact with the US, Rowany were already established as a Barony, so we joined the SCA directly under the Steward. In 1992 I visited the US together with Artos Barefoot and Christia Barrett to go 'Kingdom shopping'. We chose the West because it was the birthplace of the SCA and - most importantly - felt the closest to what we had developed at home.

Over the years the West has provided fabulous support. We have enjoyed regular visits from Royalty and others, sharing their fighting and artistic skills, holding court and supporting our peerage. Almost all their officers have been excellent communicators. Over the years we have truly been a part of the West Kingdom. We are proud of them - and they of us.

So why should we become a separate Kingdom? My own reasons are these:

We have developed a culture which is distinct from mainland West. Lochac have always been different to 'mainland West'. Isolated as we are, we have naturally developed our own attitudes, our own strengths and weaknesses. Visitors to our shores often comment on this - and how much they like it!

We have developed different attitudes in several critical areas. We have a strong tradition of light infantry: we developed archery rules (and blunts) which have been widely adopted - even outside the SCA. We have a growing body of fencers and are again at the forefront of developing a suitable and authentic set of rules.

We have different standards in many areas of our arts and sciences. Our standards in the arts of dancing, costume and scribal arts are amongst the highest in the Known World, while our armouring and other arts are only now gaining true strength. As a result, we judge our artisans by our own standards, not those of the central West.

We have enough people, enough peers and enough fighters of quality, all of which are essential to becoming a Kingdom.

We have operated as a separate entity for many years. Even before we were a Kingdom , we operated as a separate Crown Kingdom within the Kingdom, with our own officers and structure. We are incorporated as a separate legal entity, and our mundane legal system is very different. We are ready for this stage in our development. I remember when we grew from a collection of separate groups into a whole entity - a true Kingdom . Some people had concerns about the abilities and maturity of those who would govern as Prince and Princess in their own right - a very different matter to being Viceroy and Vicereine. Our Royalty have certainly varied in their abilities and in their approaches to the position, yet we have grown and prospered under this variety! All Kingdoms face this same challenge and have dealt with it, as we will surely do in our turn.

I love the West and always will, as a child loves its parents. Yet every child grows up and makes their own way in the world, and the parents rejoice to see them stand on their own! I believe we are ready to make the next step, take the next challenge, and celebrate the dawn of the Kingdom of Lochac. This would truly be the fulfillment of my dream of so many years ago.

In service, as ever, I remain

Viscountess Baroness Mistress Rowan Perigrynne, OP, OL, QOG, etc

Lochac Kingdom, A No Case

by Hrölf Herjölfssen

Our Coronets try to cover as much of Lochac as they can during their reigns. However, Lochac is big. By the time the USA had a comparable geographical spread and number of groups, it had already split into several Kingdoms. As a result our Coronets tend to end up very exhausted and broke by the end of their reigns. Unless we are much more numerous in people (and richer) than we are now, the expense (in money and people) will continue to be high when we become a Kingdom.

As well, given the number of groups in Lochac, if each of them has a problem every two years that requires input from on high, this means one new problem arising every two weeks.

These problems of strain and expense extend not just to the Prince and Princess, but also to the Great and Lesser Officers of State.

These factors mean that there is quite evidently a severe trend towards decline in the number of people who are willing and capable of conducting the higher business of state for Lochac.

This is evidenced by the ongoing problems in various offices. These vary from difficulty in finding people to take on tasks, to problems of personal conflict and examples of outright incompetence. If people think of the areas that concern them, I am sure that several examples will spring to mind. These problems vary from the trivial to the very serious.

There has been an increase in the difficulty in finding Stewards for major Lochac events (a problem I flagged when we switched back to a six month reign). We need only to look at the number of events recently that have been held by the Seneschal or where Stewards have been located well after the formal deadlines are past, often after direct appeals from the Prince or Princess. The events themselves continue to be fun, but it is getting harder to run them.

There has been a long-term trend to static and even declining membership in the SCA in Australia that is counter to what should be occurring in the current mundane society.

Tensions and severe regional variation have long been observable in the Peerage councils with local opinion of a person being sometimes over-ridden by 'outside' pressure.

Except when visiting overseas there has been little evidence of people in Lochac showing a higher loyalty above the level of households or their immediate group. We need to put in place mechanisms, which will act to increase this, before we take such a large step.

One of the key foci for the enthusiasm of people is the Coronet (or Crown). We need to maximise the chance that people will get to see them in order to help boost our memberships. If we become a Kingdom now this chance will be reduced. Other alternatives (such as moving to multiple Principalities) will increase this and lead to higher levels of enthusiasm and identification.

I wish to point out that, for a wide variety of reasons familiar from the 'Kingdom now' advocates, I believe that it is desirable that we move towards becoming a Kingdom. I am disappointed that this has not occurred years ago. It is my fear (based on professional analysis) that if we do so without the conditions being right, it is likely to lead to a collapse in Lochac. A Kingdom Officer is not a Kingdom Officer with a change of name. From Crown to Historian there is a new level of responsibility as reporting must be done direct to the BOD (and in our case the SCAA as well) without the assistance of 'on site' help. Our systems are having difficulty in coping now. I cannot see this additional stress as easing the problems.

In the most recent Cockatrice I wrote that: "Millenarianism might be called an outbreak of hope expressed as an expectation of deliverance, for at least its believers. Its characteristics are that salvation is collective, imminent, total, miraculous and terrestrial". This is what I hear from our 'Kingdom now' believers. Unfortunately it lacks any solid basis in fact.

In service to Lochac

Baron Hrölf Herjölfssen OP, OLM, ORL, AA, QOG, QC, OR, OST, LC, PC, PC.

Ex-Chancellor of Lochac, ex-Crux Australis, ex-Lochac Lists, ex-Lochac Historian, ex-Bard of Lochac, ex-Chair of the SCA (Australia).
Mundanely a sociologist specialising in Leisure activities and Organisations

Lochac Kingdom, A Yes Case

by Yolande Kesteven

I have been a member of the Society for five years. In that time I have played in Lochac. I know that Lochac is a part of the Kingdom of the West, and that makes a difference to me when I swear fealty, when I give the Royal Toast, do Princess things, and when I call for three cheers in my stunt Heralding moments. But those are the only times it really does make a difference to me. For the rest of the time, there is only Lochac. And while the West is very dear to me, it is a separate place, far away.

This is the main reason that I believe Lochac should be a Kingdom. We act as a distinct group, overseeing our own Heraldry, our finances, and our combat standards. The Kingdom of the West is a great Kingdom, and they have worked very hard for us, but when you read through their law, there are whole sections which apply solely to Lochac, or specifically exempt Lochac. It is as though there is the Kingdom of the West, and Lochac.

This is actually the case. We did not grow out of the West, but adopted them when our need was great. In true chivalric fashion they have nurtured us and helped us to grow as a group until we have the ability to function independently. Along the way there have been the occasional ructions. Almost all of these grew out of the cultural differences that exist between the Central West and Lochac. For instance, our light community is far more active than that in the Central West. There are more late-period personae here and more Viking personae there. There is not room for a detailed discussion of our differences, but they are real and many.

This alone would not be adequate reason to become a Kingdom, but the separate nature of Lochac causes layers of difficulty for both our administration and that of the Central West that benefit neither group, and cause only added expense and time to be spent on both sides. The Kingdom has very limited power and must constantly refer Kingdom Officers and the Crown. This is feudally appropriate, but adds hundreds of dollars to the bills of Coronets and Officers. At times problems arise because of a lack of familiarity with Lochac. It is unreasonable to expect that those across a sea should be current with our styles and persons, we are unfamiliar with theirs, yet we require that they make the law and set the mode for us. We have all seen instances where perfectly sensible decisions made on one side of the ocean were calamitous on the other.

I believe the best response to these issues of separateness is for Lochac to become a Kingdom. In the past five years I have travelled the length and breadth of this land. No one can convince me that there is not a "Lochac" spirit. It burns bright and true from Aneala to Rowany. It encompasses the fine traditions that we have learned from the West and adds our particular touches. Or perhaps it would be more accurate to say our particular catering.

Yes we have our problems. In this reign there were difficulties with Officers and reporting. For the most case this stemmed from people not wanting to bother others, but being overwhelmed by a growing mundane life. When the problem became known, the result was traditionally Lochac. Many put up their hands to volunteer for positions that had become vacant. Others promised assistance for the officers (promises which are being kept), and some came at the problem from a theoretical perspective, to find ways of ensuring it did not repeat. At the end of our reign we have a strong Officers Corps, but more importantly we have a large pool of Deputies able to assist and relieve where needed.

Similarly the Coronet Lists have been small of late. This is a mystery that I cannot solve, as I can think of no task more joyous than ruling Lochac. The task has not been hard, nor more costly than we could afford (and each decides that figure for themselves). The rewards have been enormous, including the incredible support of the Populace and the thrill of meeting so many from the newest Armiger to the oldest Knight. These small lists are but a recent trend, and I hope they will fall out of fashion soon.

What will not fall out of fashion is the sense of this place as one strong unit. Yes Lochac has her Baronies and her shires, her households and her cantons. But above all is Lochac, and through all is Lochac. I have sat in courts on either coast, and the spirit has been the same. Only the clothes and banners differed. For all my years in the Society, Lochac has been a place that stood alone in all but law. It is time that the law reflected the reality. While it will be with sorrow that I will see the King of the West depart as our ruler, it will be with overwhelming pride and joy that I will welcome the first King of Lochac. For, all sense and logic aside, it will be a wonderful thing that we should know our King and know that He is in all ways from us, of us and for us.

Yolande Kesteven

Lochac Kingdom, A No Case

by Morwynna Branwynt

Approaching another Kingdom poll, the same questions (still unanswered) pop into my head. Why change? What are the benefits? What effect will it have on the way we do things? Do we understand how or if it will be different?

As a Kingdom , we face a number of challenges eg distance, communication, maintaining interest and numbers, keeping our offices filled, convincing people to enter Coronet tourneys, finding groups to bid for Coronet events. None of these problems will go away by becoming a Kingdom, some of them may even be exacerbated. What follows are simply random thoughts to start discussion, rather than any tightly built argument, I think the start of the poll should be about questioning rather than taking a stand.

Corpora requires several things of a Kingdom

400 financial members (more is preferred and steadily increasing even better) - haven't seen the numbers recently, however there is a trend for dropping memberships across the society, something we need to keep an eye on.

Sufficient peers to advise the Crown -- okay think we've got that one covered.

Sufficient fighters of quality to contest the Crown list -- we only managed 13 at November Coronet in Politarchopolis (the heart of the Kingdom ) and it was missing most of our unbelted mid rank fighters. May Coronet in Rowany had similarly small numbers. I'm told that Drachenwald recently had a Crown list of 5. I find these numbers worrying, lists of 20 or so would make me more comfortable. King by right of arms should mean something.

A full slate of officers and others willing to be deputies and successors -- speaking from personal experience, filling Kingdom offices with people who have suitable experience has been difficult. Some local groups experience difficulty filling local offices and new people are not necessarily interested in holding office.

So there are a few issues to think about just from the legal requirements, however I still have no clear idea of WHY

Someone said that its because that's what grownup up Principalities do -- I personally prefer to make my choices based on solid information and reasoned arguments rather than following the leader or because "We should". There are several very grownup Principalities (Mists, Oertha, Cynagua to name three) who have no plans on becoming Kingdoms anytime soon, if ever.

Someone else said -- because it would be easier administratively -- in the world of the internet, I don't think it makes much difference, and the layers of responsibility have advantages eg independent perspectives in solving disputes.

Here's my favourite -- We'll get more peers. Peerage is not something I've noticed being thrown around lightly, in fact we may get less because the King and Queen will actually know the people involved. If it was too easy -- who'd want one.

I could be Queen -- well I've been Princess and one of the best things about it was there was this Queen person to use as a sounding board. I really enjoy having the different levels of Royalty, you can access their experience, they can take some of the heat off, they will tell you that it's a really stupid idea and you should rethink it and have the means to make sure you do rethink it.

Seriously -- why are we doing this -- because we want to? Because we've been told we should? Or have we decided its actually what we already are?

One thing I've noticed about Lochac through my travelling is that we are still very much a loose collection of separate groups, we don't talk in terms of what's good for the Kingdom , we're too busy looking after our own patch, being insular.

Put in terms of change management theory, we are missing a few vital ingredients:

The impetus for change is not clear to all;

We have no clear shared idea of what kind of Kingdom we would have -- I find it difficult to vote yes for something I have insufficient info on. What's more, is it fair to ask people to vote yes without telling them what they'll get. And is it what people want -- do we want one Kingdom , several Principalities, a Kingdom? We are only looking at one option here.

Do we have the capacity -- people, systems, succession plans, steadily growing memberships or will we follow the Society wide trend and start shrinking.

It goes on -- please Think. Talk, Look at things from different points of view. Any of the above points could be used for either case. I like being part of a larger Kingdom with a proud history, I'd miss the excuses for visits, the contact, the experience we can access, the systems they have in place and the funny accents of the King and Queen. Maybe one day we'll be a Kingdom, but I hope not for a while.

Morwynna Branwynt

Formal Requirements

  1. Kingdoms

    A kingdom is a sovereign entity within the Society which has the right to select a ruling King and Queen by combat. A branch or contiguous group of branches may petition for kingdom status if the resulting entity would fulfill the requirements listed below.

    1. At least 400 subscribing members.
    2. A full staff of prospective Great Officers, each of whom is acceptable to the Corporate Officer responsible for the direction of that aspect of Society activity.
    3. A name and device registered with the College of Arms.
    4. Consensus favoring advancement in branch status, among the members in the proposed kingdom.
    5. A record of well-attended events together with regular study or guild meetings, demonstrations, and other educational activities for the benefit of the members and the community at large.
    6. Sufficient members of the orders conferring Patents of Arms to advise the Crown upon the admission of candidates to those orders.
    7. Sufficient fighters of such caliber as to invest the competition for the Crown with the dignity and value it merits.
    8. A body of kingdom law which provides for the maintenance and succession of the Crown; for the definition and advancement of local branches; for the appointment and removal of territorial Barons and Baronesses; for the conduct of such courts as may be required for the maintenance of the realm; and for such other matters as are found necessary. Draft laws, in the form they will be presented to the victors of the first Crown Lists, must accompany a petition for kingdom status. (See Governing and Policy Decision #3.)
    9. A newsletter with quality and stability suitable for conversion to a corporate publication of the Society.



  1. Subject to the following guidelines, the Society Seneschal will develop detailed procedures for branch establishment and advancement, working with the Kingdom Seneschals to allow for regional variation.

    1. Society members who wish to form a branch or advance an existing branch or group of branches in status must first determine whether the area they have in mind is eligible for such treatment. This process shall involve consultation with the Kingdom (and Kingdom , if any) Seneschal, and with the Seneschals of any nearby branches.
    2. The members shall reach a consensus as to a proposed name (and device, where required), and register with the College of Arms as indicated for a branch of the proposed type before any petition for recognition can be granted.
    3. After executing the provisions of V.B.1.a and <1.b above, the populace of the affected area shall prepare a petition for the proposed action, setting forth the proportion of their numbers favoring the move, and the manner in which the requirements have been met.
    4. The petition shall be sent to the Seneschal of the branch with jurisdiction over the area (as defined by kingdom law and custom), who shall review it and forward it to the Kingdom Seneschal with a recommendation. If no kingdom has jurisdiction, the petition shall be sent to the Society Seneschal.
    5. The Kingdom Seneschal shall review the petition to determine whether the proposed branch elevation conforms to Corpora and kingdom law and custom, consulting royalty and other kingdom or Kingdom officers as appropriate for the level of branch under consideration.
    6. If the Kingdom Seneschal decides to recommend that the petition should be granted, the action to be taken depends on the level of branch, as follows:


      1. Institutional branches, and local branches other than baronies and provinces. [...]
      2. Baronies and provinces. [...]
      3. Principalities. [...]
      4. Kingdoms. The Kingdom Seneschal shall determine if the petition package includes a transition plan which is acceptable both to the branch or branches in question and to the parent kingdom(s), and shall assist in developing such a plan if one is still needed. Whether or not a transition plan can be worked out, the Seneschal shall forward the entire petition package (together with the accumulated recommendations, comments, and reasons for approval) to the Society Seneschal for review. The Society Seneschal shall bring the petition before the Board for formal action, and the Society Seneschal and the Board will adjudicate any unreconcilable differences.


    7. If the Kingdom Seneschal decides to recommend that the petition should be denied, copies of the petition (together with the accumulated recommendations, comments, and reasons for denial) shall be sent to the person(s) originating the petition, to the Society Seneschal, and to the seneschals of any intervening branches. The person(s) originating the petition may appeal to the Society Seneschal, and then to the Board if the petitioner(s) are not satisfied.


  2. General Considerations
    1. Boundaries. Each branch must have established borders, enclosing a single, contiguous area. At the Board's discretion, exceptions may be made in the case of overseas areas dependent upon kingdoms or principalities. Branch borders need not necessarily follow state lines or similar political divisions, if other clearly definable lines are available. In some cases, the "border" may be defined in terms of an institution rather than a specific map reference. (See V.A.5.)
    2. Financial Reporting Units. In the United States, branches below Kingdom level should not include territory in more than one state, because the Society may at any time be required to report financial results for a given state. Existing branches which cross state lines will not be disturbed until and unless such a requirement is imposed, but the kingdoms may not create new ones without specific authorization from the Society Seneschal. A similar guideline applies to branches in other countries, which should not cross internal or international borders which might affect financial reporting.
    3. Lateral Transfers. Lateral changes in branch designation (such as between barony and province or between shire and college) must be submitted to the Society Seneschal for review and approval, to provide an outside confirmation that the needs of the membership will be served by the change.
    4. Branches with International members. While International memberships may be used in the calculation of membership totals for branch status, a branch based on International memberships must have least one subscription to its kingdom newsletter. The exact number required is a matter for negotiation among the Seneschals of the branch, Kingdom , and kingdom, and the Society Seneschal. The required subscription(s) may be purchased communally by the branch.


HTML formatted by Eric T. F. Bat, Last modified: Wed Feb 23 09:38:08 Sydney Daylight Time 2000