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New Training Resources Available
5 May 2013

Lindoret of Bryn Myrddin and Gomez De Crecy have posted two new teaching resources. One ... Read More

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Categories

    Resources

    Manuals & Masters


    Contents


    Introduction

    The listing below, arranged by nation / language and tradition details the known fencing manuals and masters from period. Where known, links to facsimile copies, transcription, trnslations and interpretations has been provided. Please note of the facsimile links will be large pdf files.

    Some of this content has been sourced from wiktenauer.com under their GNU Free Documentation License. As such the content of this page is bound by the same licence.


    Italian Swordsmanship

    Italian Longsword

    This is the fencing system used by Italian men-at-arms, and whilst being widely regarded as a longsword system, is actually a complete detailed martial art. The two manuals, whilst bearing no obvious lineage or connection use similar language and  nomenclature to describe the art. They both show wrestling, dagger, sword, longsword and polearm systems, both in and out of armour.

    Fiore de' Liberi da Premariacco, (Italy, c.1410)
    - Fior di Battaglia MS Ludwig XV 13 (Getty version)
    - Fior di Battaglia MS M.383 (Pierpont Morgan version)
    - Flos Duellatorum Pisani-Dossi MS (Novati or Pisanni-Dossi version)
    - Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)

    There are four manuscripts for this manual. The first three are written in Middle Italian, the fourth is in Medieval Latin. There are subtle differences between each version, mostly in arrangement of the content. The Getty version contains the most content of the four.

    See Matt Easton's excellent summary of current knowledge regarding this master and his manuals.

    Facsimiles and Transcriptions:

    Translations:

    Vadi, Filipo, Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi (Italy 1470)

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    Translations:

    Bolognese Tradition

    Dardi, Lippo Bartolomeo

    Mistakenly called Bardi in Gaugler's History of Fencing, is referenced to the early-1400's, and identified as the founder of the documented style. He was a Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy at the University, and in 1413 obtained privileges from the Bolognese government for a school of fencing to be opened in via Pietralata. Dardi wrote a now-lost treatise on the relationship between fencing and geometry and is said to have died in 1464.

    Di Luca, Guido Antonio

    A first or second-generation student of the Dardi tradition, di Luca was probably the greatest master of the tradition. He lived in the parish of Santa Maria delle Muratelle, and the fame of his students has survived the centuries. Amongst the most famous were the condottieri Conte Guido Rangoni and the famed Giovanni de Medici (aka Giovanni dalle Bande Nere), and the fencing master Achille Marozzo, whom wrote, “from whose school came more warriors than from the belly of the Trojan Horse.” Di Luca is said to have died in the early 16th century.

    Rumoured to have written a treatise titled Opera de Scherma however the whereabouts of this manual is unknown.

    Manciolino, Antonio, Opera Nova di Antonio Manciolino Bolognese (Venice 1531)

    Antonio Manciolino published his treatise Opera Nova in 1531, and this edition is the one available to us today. The title page informs us that this edition is newly corrected and printed, which indicates there may have been an earlier now lost version. Manciolino dedicated his manual to Don Luis de Cordola, Duke of Sessa, Orator of the Most Serene Emperor to Adrian VI. Correspondence records show that Charles V appointed Don Luis as his ambassador to the Pope around September of 1522 and Pope Adrian VI was pope from 9 January 1522 to 14 September 1523. Thus we can date the original manual to sometime between September 1522 and September 1523. Aside from being the author of the first extant Bolognese / Dardi School manual available to us today, nothing else is known of this Master.

    Facsimiles:

    Translations:

    Interpretations:

    Marozzo, Achille, Opera Nova de Achille Marozzo Bolognese, Mastro Generale de l'Arte de l'Armi (Modena 1536)
    - Arte dell' Armi de Achille Marozzo Bolognese (Venetia 1568)

    Self-professed pupil of di Luca and widely but mistakenly proclaimed as the first Italian author on fencing, and is certainly the most well known of the Bolognese Masters. Marozzo was born in 1484 and died in 1553. He maintained a sala d’arme near the Abbey of Saints Naborre and Felice in Bologna,  and wrote his own massive fencing treatise, entitled Opera Nova de Achille Marozzo Bolognese, Mastro Generale de l'Arte de l'Armi, in 1536. The book was published multiple times in many cities - Modena (1536), Bologna (1546), Venice (1550). It was revised and republished by his son, Sebastiano in Venice under the title Arte dell Armi de Achille Marozzo Bolognese in 1568. Marozzo’s teachings remained so popular that an edition appeared in 1615, long after the rise of the rapier.

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    Translations:

    Interpretations:

    Anomino Bolognese, L'Arte della Spada (~1550)

    The L'Arte della Spada ("Art of the Sword") treatise by the Anonimo Bolognese (anonymous master of Bologna), Manuscripts Ravenna M-345 and M-346 is an early 16th century fencing manual of the Bolognese school. It is dated to the "very first years of the 1500s" by Rubboli and Cesari (2005), who would like to ascribe it to the master of Manciolino, while other estimates place it closer to 1550.

    Transcription:

    Dall'Agocchie, Giovanni, Dell'arte di scrimia (Venice 1572)

    Born in 1547, his date of death is unknown. Dall’Agocchie is the last documented master of the 16th Century Bolognese school, who published, Dell’arte di Scrimia in 1572. His treatise maintained the old nomenclature and guards of the tradition, but in keeping with the increased focus on civilian combat limited its focus to the sword used alone and with the buckler. Shields, polearms and the spadone were ignored altogether, although the last section of the book did discuss using the lance from horseback. For modern students, dall’Agocchie’s greatest virtue is a detailed explanation of the guards named, but not defined, by Marozzo, and his section on “how to win a duel in 30 days”, which, like Viggiani, presents a fencing primer, but moves beyond the universal parry and overhand thrust. Whilst the guards bear similarities to those of Marozzo, there are subtle differences when compared to imagery and in use instructions.

    Facsimile:

    Translation:

    Florentine Tradition

    Only two masters are known from this school. Although it is unclear if this was a formal school in the way that Bolognese school was, the works of Francesco Altoni and Marco Docciolini clearly detail different aspects of the same system. This school is important in that it might be the first documented predominantly right-foot forward system of Italian Swordsmanship and a precursor to the Italian Rapier systems of the next century.

    Altoni, Francesco di Sandro, Monomachia, Trattato della arte di scherma (1550)

    No MS Des. - held in Universitätsbibliothek Augsburg

    Transcription:

    Docciolini, Marco, Trattato in materia di scherma (Florence 1601)

    Transcription:

    Miscellaneous Manuals

    Monte, Pietro, De Dignoscendis Hominibus (1492)
    - De Singulari Certamine Sive Dissentione (1509)
    - Exercitiorum, atque artis militaris collectanea (Milan, 1509)
    - Peitri Moniij edtor Anon., Sections of Monte's Collectanea (Escorial MS.A.IV.23, Real Biblioteca Madrid 1509)

    Probably one of the most frustrating manuals known to modern fencing scholars, due to it's exceptionally low availabilty. Tantalising glimpses of Monte's manual can be found in Angelo's "Martial Arts of Rennaisance Europe".

    Facsimile:

    Agrippa, Camillo, Trattato di scientia d'arme (Rome, 1553).

    Facsimiles:

    Translations:

    Interpretations:

    Di Grassi, Giacomo, Ragione di adoprar sicuramente l'arme (Venice 1570)
    - His True Arte of Defence, etc (London 1594)

    Interpretations:

    Lovino, Giovanni Antonio, Traite d'Escrime (Milan c. 1580)

    http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~wew/fencing/lovino.html - An English transcription and translation by Giovanni Rapisardi and William Wilson.

    Viggiani, Angelo, Lo schermo (Venice 1575)

    Born in 1517 and died c.1555. A Venetian innovator whose work actually preceded Camillo Agrippa’s by three years, he instructed his brother to wait at least fifteen years after his death before publishing work, entitled Lo Schermo (“Fencing”). It was printed in Venice in 1575 and in Bologna in 1588. In his treatise, Viggiani simplified the existing tradition, reducing the number of guards to seven and introducing a less metaphorical nomenclature. Viggiani presented a basic framework of the inter-relation of guards, blows and parries, explicitly defined through Aristotelian physics, and including one of the first detailed discussions of tempo. He boasted that in a half-hour lesson he could teach a student enough to survive a duel. This lesson consisted of the seven guards and their relationship to the blows, a universal parry, the rovescio ascendente, combined with a universal attack, the punta sopramano (an overhand lunge).

    Translation:

    Interpretation:

    Ghisliero, Federico, Regole di molti cavagliereschi esseritii (Parma 1587)

    Facsimile:

    Italian Rapier Tradition

    Falloppia, Alfonso, Nuovo et brieve modo di schermire (Bergamo 1584)

    Transcription:

    Fabris, Salvator, Scienza e practica d'arme (Copenhagen 1606)

    The most famous of the Italian rapier master, who also wrote the most comprehensive manual.

    Facsimile:

    Transltion:

    • Leoni, Tomasso, The Art of Dueling: Salvator Fabris' rapier fencing treatise of 1606
      Chivalry Bookshelf (2005)

    Giganti, Nicoletto, Scola overo teatro (Venice 1606)

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    Translations:

    Interpretations:

    Capoferro, Ridolfo, Gran simulacro (Siena 1610)

    Facsimiles:

    Translation:

    • mac9.ucc.nau.edu/manuscripts/pcapo/EnglishCF.pdf
      - English translation by William Wilson and W. Jherek Swanger
    • Jared Kirby (Editor, Translator), Ramon Martinez (Translator), Jeanette Acosta-Martinez (Translator) Italian Rapier Combat: Ridolfo Capo Ferro's 'Gran Simulacro' Greenhill Books / Stackpole Books (2004)

    Interpretation & Other Resources:

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    German Swordsmanship

    14th Century Sword & Buckler

    This tradition consists of one manual, which also happens to be the world's oldest European fencing manual. This manual typifies the sword and buckler fencing system in use in Germany du

    Anon. Liber de Arte Dimicatoria Royal Armouries Ms I.33 (Germany c.1300)

    This anonymous sword and buckler manual is Germanic in origin, with text in German and Latin and dated as either late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. It is held in the manuscript collection at the Royal Armouries in Leeds. Also known as the Tower Manuscript, or as Walpurgis' manual.

    Translation:

    • Forgeng, Jeffrey, The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship, Chivalry Bookshelf 2003
    • freywild.ch/i33/i33en.html - images, transcription and English translation

    Interpretations:

    Online Resources:

    15th Century Armoured Combat

    Gladiatoria (15th Century)
    - MS KK5013
    - MS German Quarto 16
    - Fencing Manual - MS Membr.H 109
    - Codex Guelf 78.2 August 2°
    - CL23842

    The Gladiatoria Group is a series of several German manuscripts from the 15th century that share the same art style and cover the same material—various types of armored combat. These are interesting texts in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, but not directly influenced by it.

    The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of plays of armoured fencing following the traditional progression of a judicial duel: beginning with spears and small shields called ecranches, moving to longswords, then employing daggers on foot and on the ground. The manuscripts in the group generally describe other kinds of fighting as well, such as the sword and buckler of the Codex Guelf 78.2 August 2° or the longshield of the MS German Quarto 16.

    See wiktenauer.com/wiki/Gladiatoria_group for more information.

    Resources:

    Wiktenauer gives an overview and both sites give links to the various editions with accompanying transcriptions and translations etc.

    Liechtenaur Tradition

    Predominately a longsword fencing system, said to originate with Johann Liechtenaur. Only Liechtenaur's original merkverse survive, however we have many following manuals which contain commentary on Liechtenaur's merkverse and their meaning.

    General Resources:

    • Schulze, André (ed.) , Mittelalterliche Kampfesweisen - Mainz am Rhein. : Zabern
      • vol. 1: Das Lange Schwert, 2006. - ISBN 3-8053-3652-7
      • vol. 2, Kriegshammer, Schild und Kolben, 2007. - ISBN 3-8053-3736-1
      • vol. 3: Scheibendolch und Stechschild, 2007. - ISBN 978-3-8053-3750-2
    • Thomas, Michael G., Fighting Man's Guide to German Longsword Combat, ISBN 978-1-906512-00-2 (2008)
    • Tobler, Christian Henry, In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts (2010), ISBN 978-0-9825911-1-6

    Liechtenaur, Johann, Kunst des langen Schwertes or Kunst des Fechtens (Germany c.1389)

    Johannes Liechtenauer (Hans Lichtenauer, Lichtnawer) was a 13th or 14th century German fencing master. He was likely born in the early to mid 1300s, possibly in Lichtenau, Mittelfranken (Franconia). Unfortunately, no direct record of his life or teachings currently exists, and all that we know of both comes from the writings of other masters and scholars. Liechtenauer was described by many later masters as the hochmeister ("high master" or "grand master") of the art, and a long poem called the Zedel, or "teaching", is generally attributed to him by these masters (many more masters and manuscripts quote some version this poem without attribution).

    Facsimile Reprints:

    • Hans-Peter Hils, Meister Johan Liectenaurs Kunst des langen Schwertes (Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, 1985)
    • Martin Weirschin, Meister Johann Leichtenaurs Kunst des Fechten (Munich, 1965)

    Interpretations:

    • Heim, Hans & Alex Kiermayer, The Longsword of Johannes Liechtenauer, Part I -DVD-, ISBN 1-891448-20-X

    Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a

    The codex Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a (169 folia) is a manuscript dating from around 1389, preserved today in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg (Nürnberg). It is frequently attributed to Hanko Döbringer. Also referred to as Codex MS 3227a or the Döbringer Codex.

    It contains recipes for a wide range of purposes as well as treatises on martial arts. Most notably, it is the earliest manuscript dealing with the art of fencing with the long sword of Johannes Liechtenauer.

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    http://www.hammaborg.de/en/transkriptionen/3227a/index.php - a complete transcription

    hroarr.com/manuals/liechtenauer/1389_Hanko_Dobringer.zip - microfilm scans

    Translations:

    www.thearma.org/Manuals/Dobringer_A5_sidebyside.pdf - A side-by-side translation of Liechtenauer's Blossfechten from Codex MS 3227a courtesy of David Lindholm and the Association for Renaissance Martial Arts.

    Ringeck, Sigmund Fechtbuch des Sigmund Ringeck (Germany 1440's)

    Formally known as Mscr.Dresd.C487, and held in the Sachsische Landesbibliotek Dresden. This work is a commentary of Liechtenaur's merkverse.

    Interpretations:

    • Tobler, Christian Henry, Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship (2001), ISBN 1-891448-07-2
    • Tobler, Christian Henry, Fighting with the German Longsword, ISBN 1-891448-24-2 (2004)
    •  
    • Lindholm, David & Peter Svard, Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword, ISBN 1-58160-410-6 (2003)

    Talhoffer, Hans, Fechtbuch aus den Jahre (Germany)
    - MS Chart.A.558 (1443)
    - Cod.Nr.55.Ambras (1450s)
    - MS XIX.17-3 (1450s)
    - MS 78.A.15 (1450s)
    - MS Thott 290.2º (1459)
    - Cod.icon.394a (1467)

    Hans Talhoffer (or Talhofer) was a 15th century German fencing master. His martial lineage is unknown, but his writings make it clear that he had some connection to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the German school of fencing. He authored a number of fencing manuals during the course of his career, and appears to have made his living teaching, including training people for trial by combat.

    Facsimiles:

    • Facsimile copies of some of Talhoffer's work can be found at the HACA site.

    Translations:

    Rector Mark, Medieval Combat: A 15th Century Manual of Swordfighting and Close-Quarter Combat, Greenhill Books/Lionel Leventhal; (September 2000) ISBN: 1853674184

    Resources:

    Wiktenauer gives an overview and both sites give links to the various editions with accompanying transcriptions and translations etc.

    Jud Lew
    - Cod.44.A.8 (1452)
    - Cod.I.6.4°.3 (1450s)
    - MS KK5126 (1480s)
    - MS M.I.29 (1491)
    - MS E.1939.65.341 (1508)
    - MS Germ.Quart.2020 (1510-1520)
    - MS 963 (1538)

    Jud Lew (or "The Jew" Löw) was a 15th Century German fencing master. He only wrote a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's markverse on mounted fencing.

    See wiktenauer.com/wiki/Jud_Lew for more information

    Resources:

    Wiktenauer gives an overview and all the above sites give links to the various editions with accompanying transcriptions and translations etc.

    Pauernfeindt, Andre, Ritterlicher kunst der Fecterey (Vienna 1516)

    Paulus Hector Mair
    - MS Dresden C93/C94 (1542)
    - Cod.Vindob.10825/10826 (1542)
    - Cod.Icon.393/394 (1542)
    - Cod.Icon.312b (1548)
    - Reichsstadt Schätze Nr. 82 (1553)

    Paulus Hector Mair (1517 - 1579) was an Augsburg civil servant, and active in the martial arts of his time. He collected fencing manuals and undertook to compile all knowledge of the art of fencing in a compendium surpassing all earlier books.

    See wiktenauer.com/wiki/Paulus_Hector_Mair for more information

    Resources:

    Wiktenauer gives an overview and both sites give links to the various editions with accompanying transcriptions and translations etc.

    Interpretations:

    Knight, David James and Brian Hunt, Polearms of Paulus Hector Mair , ISBN 978-1-58160-644-7 (2008)

    Meyer, Joachim, Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Strasbourg 1570)

    Wrestling

    von Auerswald, Fabian, Ringer Kunst (Wittenberg 1539)

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    English Swordsmanship

    English Longsword

    There are four known sources for the peculiarly English style of two-handed swordsmanship, all of which are handwritten manuscripts. The anonymous Harleian MS. 3542 is dated circa 1450, and comes in two parts - a descriptive series of techniques, and “The Play with the 2 Hand Sword in Verse”, colloquially known as “The Man Who Wol”. These two parts might be considered two separate documents, and may come from separate sources. The Cotton Titus MS. is later in date, maybe late 15th century, and also comes in two parts, the “Strokez off ij hand swerde” and “Strokes atte þe ij hande staffe”. Additional MS. 39564, signed by “J. Ledall”, is later still, the script suggesting the early 16th century. Lastly, Sloane MS. 376, published as George Silver’s Brief Instructions on my Paradoxes of Defence, from around 1605.

    General Resources:

    • Bradak, Benjamin "Casper" and Heslop, Brandon. Lessons on the English Longsword. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-58160-734-5
    • Bradak, Benjamin "Casper" and Heslop, Brandon. "A Brief Introduction to the Boon of the English Flourysh." Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial Arts. Ed. Jeffrey Hull. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58160-668-3

    Harelian MS. 3542, ff 82-85 (15th Century)

    “The Play with the 2 Hand Sword in Verse”, colloquially known as “The Man Who Wol”

    http://www.blackfalconschool.com/harley.shtml - overview of current knowledge

    Transcriptions:

    British Museum, MS Titus A. xxv, f. 105 (Cotton Titus Manuscript c. 1450-1465)

    http://www.blackfalconschool.com/cotton.shtml - overview of current knowledge

    Transcriptions:

    Additional MS. 39564, signed by “J. Ledall” (c. 1485 and 1515)

    http://www.blackfalconschool.com/ledall.shtml - - overview of current knowledge

    Transcriptions:

    Late Renaissance Manuals

    Saviolo, Vincentio, Vincentio Saviolo his Practise in two bookes (London 1595)

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    • Jackson, James, Three Elizabethan Fencing Manuals (Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, Delmar, New York, 1972)
    • A transcription is also available online. (link broken) Book 1 and Book 2. There appear to be some errors in the transcription, so it may pay to get a hold of the fascimile copy.

    Interpretations:

    Silver, George, Paradoxes of Defence (London, 1599)
    - Bref Instructions upon my Parodoxes of Defence (Sloane MS No. 376, c.1599).

    Facsimiles & Transcriptions:

    Jackson, James, Three Elizabethan Fencing Manuals (Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, Delmar, New York, 1972)

    Paul Wagner Master of Defence: The Works of George Silver Paladin Press (2002)

    Interpretation:

    Stephen Hand, English Swordsmanship: The True Fight of George Silver Chivalry Bookshelf (2006)

    Swetnam, Joseph, The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence (London 1617)

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    Spanish Swordsmanship

    Esgrima Común

    Little is known of Spanish fencing before the rise of La Verdadera Destreza . We do know of the works of Jayme Pons and Pedro de la Torre, which are now unfortunately lost. This is due to references made to them in works by later masters such as Narvaez, Pallavicini, and Marcelli, who published in 1600, 1670, and 1686, respectively.

    Jaume Pons (1474) - manual now lost

    Pedro de la Torre (1474) - manual now lost

    Pedro de la Torre treated the espada de dos manos (two-handed sword) along with other weapons in his now-lost work of 1474. We know almost nothing of him, save he was a master in Cadiz and Seville, who wrote a treatise in 1474. The location of the manual was known, however it was lost in a fire.

    Roman, Francisco, Tratado de la esgrima con figures por Francisco Roman natural de Carmona (Seville, 1532)

    La Verdadera Destreza

    In Spain during the 16th Century a completely new swordplay system was developed using Reason and Mathematics to create a universal fighting method. They called the system La Verdadera Destreza, the True Art.

    The founder of the system, Don Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza, was a hero of Spain and known throughout Europe for his skill with a blade and his talent as a scholar. His most famous student, Don Luis Pacheco de Narváez, succeeded Carranza and was the fencing master to the King of Spain. He became responsible for certifying other fencing masters in Spain and was a prodigous fencing author in history with several books and over 1400 pages of text to his credit. Succeeding authors are typically treatises for passing their Masters certification, which elucidate the principles of La Verdadera Destreza, and thus provide secondary reference for the system.

    A comprehensive index to the treatises for the system can be found at http://www.destreza.us/resources/destreza_sources.html.

    Caranza, Hieronimo de, Philosophia de las Armas (1569)

    Facsimiles:

    Pacheco de Narvaez, Luis, Grandezas de la espada (1600)

    Facsimile:

    Thibault d'Anvers, Girard Academie de l'Espée (1630)

    Thibault first studied swordsmanship in Antwerp under Lambert van Someron, who taught between the years of 1564 and 1584. In 1605, Thibault was a wool merchant in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, south of Seville on the Guadalquivir river, and the hometown of Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza. There, he took an interest in swordsmanship, studying the rapier system of Luis Pacheco de Narváez.

    Facsimile:

    Translation:

    • Greer, John Michael (2006) Academy of the Sword, Girard Thibault d'Anvers, Chivalry Bookshelf

    Ettenhard, Francisco Antonio de, Compendio de los fundamentos de la verdadera destreza y filosofía de las armas (Madrid 1675)

    Facsimile:
    The original text in Spanish is from Spain’s Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid.

    Translations:
    http://www.destreza.us/translations/ettenhard.html - translation by Mary Dill Curtis

    Brea, Manuael Antonio de, Principios Universales Y Reglas Generales de La Verdadera Destreza del Espadin (Madrid 1805)

    - copy at http://books.google.com/books?id=sCQkv7HL2NYC&pg=PP7&dq=Brea,+Manuel+Antonio+de&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false

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    Portuguese Swordsmanship

    de Figueyredo, Diogo Gomes, Memorial da Prattica do Montante (1651)

    Facsimile:

    The original manuscript is in the Biblioteca da Ajuda in Lisbon, Portugal, signature 49-III-20-nº21.

    Translation:

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    French Swordsmanship

    Anon, Le Jeu de la Hache (15th Century)

    The MS Francais 1996, titled Le Jeu de la Hache ("The Play of the Axe"), is a French fencing manual of unknown origin. It currently rests in the holdings of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, France. The earliest extant treatise on the use of the poleaxe, the manuscript is unillustrated but possesses detailed descriptions of a variety of techniques.

    Sources:

    Sainct Didier, Henri de, Traicté contenant les secrets du premier livre de l'espée seule (Paris 1573)

    Facsimile:

    A pdf facsimile copy can be found at www.the-exiles.org/Library.htm.

    Translation:

    An English translation is available from Laura Agnotti. Contact her via mail to determine cost and delivery options. Her address is:
    Laura Agnotti, 76 Westmoreland Avenue, Arlington MA 02174 USA (PH: +1-781-643-6867).
     

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    Last updated on 12 Aug 2012, 11:23:32.